Archive for June, 2012

Applications of Aluminum Alloys

Aerospace alloys

The addition of scandium to aluminium creates nanoscale Al3Sc precipitates which limit the excessive grain growth that occurs in the heat-affected zone of welded aluminium components. This has two beneficial effects: the precipitated Al3Sc forms smaller crystals than are formed in other aluminium alloys and the width of precipitate-free zones that normally exist at the grain boundaries of age-hardenenable aluminium alloys is reduced.

Parts of the Mig–29 are made from Al-Sc alloyParts of the Mig–29 are made from Al-Sc alloy

Scandium is also a potent grain refiner in cast aluminium alloys, and atom for atom, the most potent strengthener in aluminium, both as a result of grain refinement and precipitation strengthening. However, titanium alloys, which are stronger but heavier, are cheaper and much more widely used.

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Friction Stir Welding

Friction Stir Welding - How Does It Works ?

Friction stir welding, a process invented at TWI, Cambridge, involves the joining of metals without fusion or filler materials. The welds are created by the combined action of frictional heating and mechanical deformation due to a rotating tool. The probe penetrates the workpiece whereas the shoulder rubs with the top surface.

The heat is generated primarily by friction between a rotating-translating tool, the shoulder of which rubs against the workpiece. There is a volumetric contribution to heat generation from the adiabatic heating due to deformation near the pin. The microstructure of a friction-stir welddepends in detail on the tool design, the rotation and translation speeds, the applied pressure and the characteristics of the material being joined. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is as in conventional welds.

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Moon`s Materials

The Moon Surface Materials

The bulk density of the Moon is 3.4 g/cc, which is comparable to that of (volcanic) basaltic lavas on the Earth (however, the bulk density of the Earth is 5.5 g/cc, because of the dense iron/nickel core).

The LunarThe Lunar

The Moon is coverered with a gently rolling layer of powdery soil with scattered rocks that is called the regolith; it is made from debris blasted out of the Lunar craters by the meteor impacts that created them. Each well-preserved Lunar crater is surrounded by a sheet of ejected material called the ejecta blanket.

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