Archive for January, 2013

History of Forging

What is Forging ?

Forging is one of the oldest known metalworking processes. Traditionally, forging was performed by a smith using hammer and anvil, and though the use of water power in the production and working of iron dates to the 12th century, the hammer and anvil are not obsolete. The smithy or forge has evolved over centuries to become a facility with engineered processes, production equipment, tooling, raw materials and products to meet the demands of modern industry.

In modern times, industrial forging is done either with presses or with hammers powered by compressed air, electricity, hydraulics or steam. These hammers may have reciprocating weights in the thousands of pounds. Smaller power hammers, 500 lb (230 kg) or less reciprocating weight, and hydraulic presses are common in art smithies as well. Some steam hammers remain in use, but they became obsolete with the availability of the other, more convenient, power sources.

(continue reading…)

You might also like

Forging  What is Metal Forging ? A forge is a hearth...
Metal Forming Processes Forming Processes of Metal Metal deformations...
What is Metallurgy ? Metals and Metallurgy - Study and Review Metallurgy...
Powder Metallurgy What is Powder Metallurgy ? Powder metallurgy...
Grab This Widget

Ferrite (iron)

What is Ferrite ?

Ferrite also known as alpha iron is a materials science term for iron, or a solid solution with iron as the main constituent, with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. It is this crystalline structure which gives steel and cast iron their magnetic properties, and is the classic example of a ferromagnetic material. Practically speaking, it can be considered pure iron. It has a strength of 280 N/mm2 and a hardness of approximately 80 Brinell.

Ferrites are chemical compounds consisting of ceramic materials with iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) as their principal component. Many of them are magnetic materials and they are used to make permanent magnets, ferrite cores for transformers, and in various other applications.

(continue reading…)

You might also like

Study Iron-Carbon (Fe-C) Phase Diagram Iron Carbon Phase Diagram A study of the...
Phase Diagram of Steel - Problem Solving Problem Solving at Steel Phase Diagram Iron-carbon...
Iron-Carbon Phases Influence of Temperature on Crystal Structure The...
Iron Carbon Phase Diagram - Fe-Fe3C and T-T-T Diagram Iron Carbon Phase Diagram   Iron-carbon...
Grab This Widget
Comments Off more...

What is Liquid Crystal ?

Introduction to Liquid Crystals

Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state that has properties between those of conventional liquid and those of solid crystal. Liquid crystal materials are unique in their properties and uses. As research into this field continues and as new applications are developed, liquid crystals will play an important role in modern technology. This tutorial provides an introduction to the science and applications of these materials. For instance, an LC may flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be orientated in a crystal-like way.

There are many different types of LC phases, which can be distinguished by their different optical properties (such as birefringence). When viewed under a microscope using a polarized light source, different liquid crystal phases will appear to have distinct textures. The contrasting areas in the textures correspond to domains where the LC molecules are oriented in different directions. Within a domain, however, the molecules are well ordered. LC materials may not always be in an LC phase (just as water may turn into ice or steam).

(continue reading…)

You might also like

Superconductors What is Superconductor ? A superconductor...
What is a Non-Newtonian Fluid? Non-Newtonian Fluid A non-Newtonian fluid...
The Bayer and Hall-Heroult Process What is The Bayer and  Hall-Heroult Process...
Iron-Carbon Phases Influence of Temperature on Crystal Structure The...
Grab This Widget

  • Translator

  • Copyright © 1996-2010 Metallurgy for Dummies. All rights reserved.
    Jarrah theme by Templates Next | Powered by WordPress