Archive for May, 2011

Deep Drawing


Deep drawing manufacturing technology is the stretching of sheet metal stock, commonly referred to as a blank, around a plug. The edges of the metal blank are restrained by rings and the plug is deep drawn into a top die cavity to achieve the end shape that is desired. There are many shapes that can be made through deep drawing and stamping such as cups, pans, cylinders, domes and hemispheres, as well as irregular shaped products.

Deep Drawing Kitchen Set

Deep drawing is the manufacturing process of forming sheet metal stock, called blanks, into geometrical or irregular shapes that are more than half their diameters in depth. Deep drawing involves stretching the metal blank around a plug and then moving it into a moulding cutter called a die.

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Phase Diagrams Fe-Mn, Fe-Co, Fe-Mo


In pure iron, the A4 (1394 °C) and A3 (912 °C) transformations take place at constant temperatures. If an element enters into solid solution in iron — forming in that way a binary alloy — each of these transformations are required by the Phase Rule to occur over a range of temperature. Some elements, such as manganese, raise the A4 and lower the A3 transformation temperatures below increasing, in effect, the extent of the gamma field in the iron-carbon phase diagram.

Fe-Mn phase diagram shows which phases are to be expected at equilibrium for different combinations of manganese content and temperature.  The melting point of iron and manganese at the pressure of 101325 Pa is 1538 °C and 1246 °C, respectively.

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Foundry and Casting


A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal in a mold, and removing the mold material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminum and cast iron. However, other metals, such as bronze, steel, magnesium, copper, tin, and zinc, are also used to produce castings in foundries.

The Kushva Iron-and-Steel Works in the Sverdlovsk Region, Urals.

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Extrusion is the process by which long straight metal parts can be produced. The cross-sections that can be produced vary from solid round, rectangular, to L shapes, T shapes. Tubes and many other different types. Extrusion is done by squeezing metal in a closed cavity through a tool, known as a die using either a mechanical or hydraulic press.

Extrusion Processing

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