According to European standard EN 10 020, steel is a material which contains by weight more iron than any other single element, having a carbon content generally less than 2% and containing other elements (Figure 1). A limited number of chromium steels may contain more than 2% of carbon, but 2% is the usual dividing line between steel and cast iron.
Due to its high strength, its good machineability and its high economic efficiency, steel is one of the most important construction materials. By changes in the chemical composition and in the production conditions, it is possible to vary steel properties over a wide range and the steel manufacturer is able to adapt the properties to the specific requirements of users.
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