Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking. The science and technology of metals and alloys. Process metallurgy is concerned with the extraction of metals from their ores and with refining of metals, physical metallurgy, with the physical and mechanical properties of metals as affected by composition, processing, and environmental conditions and mechanical metallurgy, with the response of metals to applied forces.
In its general, modern sense, metallurgy is the science that studies the chemical and physical properties of metals, including how they perform when used for culturally useful industrial purposes. The term often refers to the procedures used in extracting metals from ore, as well as to the processes related to metals purification and alloy production. Copper, tin, silver, and meteoric iron, which was used by the Egyptians to make weapons, all underwent some form of metalworking process in various ancient cultures.
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