Friction Stir Welding - How Does It Works ?
Friction stir welding, a process invented at TWI, Cambridge, involves the joining of metals without fusion or filler materials. The welds are created by the combined action of frictional heating and mechanical deformation due to a rotating tool. The probe penetrates the workpiece whereas the shoulder rubs with the top surface.
The heat is generated primarily by friction between a rotating-translating tool, the shoulder of which rubs against the workpiece. There is a volumetric contribution to heat generation from the adiabatic heating due to deformation near the pin. The microstructure of a friction-stir welddepends in detail on the tool design, the rotation and translation speeds, the applied pressure and the characteristics of the material being joined. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is as in conventional welds.
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