Forming Processes of Metal
Metal deformations are introduced through the application of external forces to the workpiece, these forces being in equilibrium. With the application of load to the workpiece, internal stress and displacements are generated causing shape distortions. If the loads are low, then with the release of the loads, the internal stresses will disappear and the workpiece will be restored to its original shape. It is then said that the applied loads were elastic and so were the stresses and strains. Elastic strains are recoverable on release of the loads.
When the loads are high enough, the changes in shape will not disappear after the load is released. The changes in shape and the strain, those that did not disappear, namely, the permanent ones, are called plastic deformations. The loads causing plastic deformations are said to have surpassed the elastic limit. During metal forming by bulk plastic deformations (to be defined), the plastic deformations are much larger than the elastic deformations, which in general are ignored.
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